Controversial issues cover a wide range of themes that can be defined as controversial for various reasons. The total number of controversial issues is spread on 30 different controversial issues in 6 different ESG categories.
There is no standard definition of a controversial issue or a controversial business. All issues are therefore not necessarily expressions of specific legal violations but have more character of an ethical dimension to be discussed, where it´s ultimately up to individuals or investor management to assess whether the issue is in line with decided values or norms. A controversial issue is not a finite phenomenon but expresses an ethical dilemma that can often be viewed from multiple perspectives. The Xklude database does not take into account dialogues with companies through the active ownership. At present, the database does not contain information on the ethical progress of controversial listed companies.